What is Organic Farming?
Organic Farming in India is not of recent origin. Our ancestors believed in organic sources. Moreover, the soil had a high amount of nutrients those days. Organic farming avoids or completely excludes the usage of synthetic compounds like
- Growth regulators,
- Livestock feed additives.
In contrast to Modern agriculture, organic farming systems uses crop rotations, crop residues, animal manures, legumes, green manures,green leaf manure, off-farm organic wastes, mechanical cultivation, mineral-bearing rocks, biological pest control methods all possible biological nutrient sources to maintain soil productivity , to supply nutrients to plants, and to control insects, weeds, and other pests.
THE ROLE OF ORGANIC FARMING
The major role of organic agriculture in India is to help and strengthen the health of ecosystems and organisms right from the smallest microbes present in the soil to human beings. In addition to this, the prime intention of organic agriculture to produce high quality, nutritious food that contributes to the health care and well-being. Furthermore, it should avoid the usage of fertilizers, pesticides, animal drugs, and other synthetic products which affect the ecosystem.
- Protecting the health and well-being of current and future generations and the environment.
- Conservation of soil
- Maintaining soil fertility
- Mobilizing the available nutrients in the soil
- Adopting biological pest control
- Increase in biodiversity
- No use of synthetic and agrochemicals
- Prohibition of Genetic Engineering and GMOs.
- Usage of farm manures and crop residues and Farm wastes.
- The principle of health
- The principle of ecology
- The principle of fairness and
- The principle of care
The principle states that safeguarding the ecosystem and being responsible are the key concerns in management, development, and technological choices in organic agriculture. Science research is a necessary factor to ensure that organic agriculture is healthy, safe and ecologically sound. However, scientific knowledge alone is not sufficient. Practical experience, wisdom from generations, and traditional and indigenous knowledge will provide valid solutions. Organic agriculture should prevent significant risks by adopting the best technologies and rejecting the ones which are ecologically unsafe, such as genetic engineering.
Concept of organic farming in India
The concept of organic farming is based on the following principles:
- Nature is the best role model for farming because it does not use any inputs from an external source. Anyways, plants find its own way to grow in undomesticated areas.
- The entire system is based on a complete understanding of nature’s ways. Unlike Modern agriculture, it doesn’t deplete the soil nutrients, groundwater table, biodiversity and what not.
- The soil in this system is considered a living entity
- The fertility of the soil depends upon the number of microbes present in the soil on a sustained basis and must be protected and nurtured at all cost.
- The total environment of the soil, right from soil structure to soil cover is significant.
How to achieve Organic Farming
- Enrichment of soil – Abandon the use of chemicals, use crop residue as mulch, use organic and biological fertilizers, adopt crop rotation and multiple cropping, avoid excessive tilling and keep the soil covered with a green cover or biological mulch.
- Management of temperature – Covering the soil with plants, bushes, cover crops on the bund.
- Conservation of soil and rainwater – Dig percolation tanks, maintain contour bunds in sloppy land & adopt contour row cultivation, dig farm ponds, maintain low height plantation on bunds.
- Harvesting of sun energy – Maintain green stand throughout the year through a combination of different crops and plantation schedules.
- Self-reliance in inputs – Develop your own seed, on-farm production of compost, vermicompost, liquid manures, and botanical extracts.
- Maintenance of life forms – Develop habitat for the nourishment of life forms, avoid using pesticides and create enough diversity.
- Integration of animals – Cattle plays an important role in organic farming. Farm Yard Manure is the natural source of nutrients.
- Use of renewable energy – Use solar energy, biogas, and bullock driven pumps, generator, and another machine.
- Banning of chemicals
- Green Manure
- Multiple cropping and crop rotation
- Use parasitoids
- Use of biofertilizers and microbes
- using botanical pesticides
- Soil management
- Weed management
- Crop diversity
- To get a better income, getting organic certification is required from concern organization.
Advantages of Organic Farming
- Promotes biodiversity
- Reduces pollution
- Preserves topsoil
- Recycling resources
- Healthy food
- Production of
- It does not deplete soil resources.
- Better Yield